Comparative study on properties of erythritol and xylitol
In this paper, some properties of xylitol through popular with now compared to in order to allow businesses and consumers to understand the characteristics of erythritol and have some unique advantages compared with other sugar alcohols.
The glycemic index (GI): refers to the food intake (glucose or white bread) the changes of blood glucose concentration compared with the relative ability of sugary foods that blood glucose levels increased relatively; the average glycemic index is used to measure the effect of food on blood sugar body index. As can be seen from table three effects of erythritol on blood glucose less than xylitol influence, and almost do not participate in the 90% The new supersedes the old. in the form of urine, excretion, this characteristic is more suitable for patients with diabetes, and tolerance than erythritol more. The caloric value of erythritol is only 0-0.2Kcal/g, much lower than the calorific value of xylitol, which is more suitable for use by people with "zero calorie" demand, such as "zero calorie beverages" and so on.
3 Comparison of metabolic pathways
3.1 metabolism of erythritol
Erythritol is a kind of small molecules, which is easily absorbed by the small intestine by passive diffusion, of which 90% erythritol enter blood circulation, because can not be any digestive enzyme system degradation in the body, so only through the kidney from the blood filter, the urine excreted. While another 10% direct access to the large intestine, metabolic pathways are shown in figure 1.
Carbohydrates entering the large intestine are fermented by intestinal bacteria to produce volatile fatty acids CH4 and H2. CH4 and H2 are dissolved into the bloodstream and excreted by exhalation. The study showed that after ingestion of erythritol, the number of exhaled H2 did not increase. After ingestion of lactose, the amount of H2 in the breath increased significantly. This shows that a small amount of erythritol entering the large intestine is difficult to be fermented by bacteria.
3.2 xylitol metabolism
80% of xylitol is metabolized through the liver, and most of the rest is taken up by the brain and heart, and very little is involved in subcutaneous fat metabolism. When the xylitol is absorbed by the liver, more than 50% of the sugar is converted to glucose, about 45% is oxidized, and a few other parts become lactic acid. According to reports in tracer experiments, taking xylitol after 12 hours, the CO2 is converted to 50-60% of xylitol excreted through the lungs, through the urine and feces discharged into the 210%, 20% - 30% glycogen and intermediate products. The total amount of xylitol per gram is metabolized to produce about 4 thousand and 60 calories, or 17.05KJ/g.
4 physiological characteristics of xylitol
4.1 tolerance test
JulieKreloff, M.S., R.D. reported that eating 30 grams or more than 30 grams at one time can cause short-term diarrhea and intestinal discomfort. Xylitol liquid than powder side effects are greater, because people eat food contains about 15 grams of xylitol, so the direct intake of xylitol content is less than 15-20 grams.
4.2 glucose response test
Florida cancer research center in CEAriticle ChristopherM.Piscitelli, about the dog xylitol toxicology test (XylitolToxicityinDogs) study to obtain when the dog eats more than 0.1g/kg xylitol has the risk of hypoglycemia. The risk of acute liver failure is greater than 0.5g/kg.
In addition, in pet magazine,  also reported that xylitol can lead to hypoglycemia and dog liver problems.
DStorey and so on reported that xylitol intake is less than 20g/ days, will not have an adverse effect on blood sugar.
If ingested too much, it can cause hypoglycemia, diarrhea, and increase uric acid levels in the blood. Very few people have skin allergies.
Study on physiological characteristics of erythritol 5
5.1 tolerance study
According to Nebraska (USA) Health Science Center University reported that tolerance to 20g/kg animal weight, body weight recommended intake of 1g/kg / day , ; in toxicological research part of  (WHO1987) reported that erythritol is almost no absorption, metabolism, low molecular weight substances; through animal toxicity experiments, determine the safety. W.O.BERNT at the University of Medicine Research Center at Nebraska reported in an acute experiment that the tolerance of erythritol to animals was 18g/kg body weight, and toxicology experiments established that erythritol was safe.
5.2 glycemic response
According to GeoffreyLivesey (British) reports, the glycemic index and insulin index of erythritol were 0,2, which was much lower than xylitol glucose index and insulin index 13,11. Therefore, the effect of erythritol on blood glucose is much smaller than xylitol and has almost no effect on blood sugar.
5.3 oxidation resistance of erythritol
Erythritol has antioxidant activity and can act as an antioxidant that helps prevent blood vessel damage caused by hyperglycemia in the body. According to the European Medical Research Center  related research reports: erythritol proved to be a good free radical scavenger and inhibitor. Studies using high-performance liquid chromatography and electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that erythritol reacted with hydroxyl radicals to form erythritol and erythritol. In diabetic rats, studies have shown that erythritol acts as a protective agent for endothelial cells and, in vitro, the presence of erythritol in rat urine.
6 Application Regulations
6.1 xylitol application regulations
The United States FDA since 1963 will be regarded as "generally recognized as safe xylitol substances permitted for use in food and beverage, medicine and cosmetics varieties; the European Economic Union Food Science Committee believes that xylitol can be used for a long time; in 1970s, international food and health food additive regulations Expert Committee (JECFA) will be approved as a food additive xylitol. And determined that its ADI value is not stipulated in the safe food. Since April 1997 has been approved as a food additive, the production of pastry sweet food enterprises, their products have been using xylitol as a sweetener